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BONNER COUNTY NATIVE PLANTS RECOMMENDED FOR LANDSCAPING

 

Congratulations! You will be landscaping in an ecological, cost effective, and aesthetically pleasing manner by selecting plants native to Bonner County, Idaho. This plant list contains information to help guide your selections. Most species are perennial or self-seeding. Weeding, mulching, and watering may be required until plants are established. Your result should be a stable ecosystem with diverse plant and animal life. It can flourish for decades, providing a beautiful, hardy, drought resistant, low maintenance landscape while benefiting the environment.

 

Decide what you want to do with your land.

·       Incorporate native plants into an existing landscape?

·       Restore an area to all native vegetation?

·       Establish shelter and food to attract wildlife?

·       Solve a problem such as flooding, run-off or soil stabilization?

·       Save time, money and resources in reduced plant care and maintenance?

Evaluate all areas of your site for factors influencing plant selection.

·       Sun and shade/ Moisture/ Soil and grade

Evaluate your expectations.

·       Eliminate/reduce use of lawn maintenance equipment. This will improve air quality, reduce CO2 emissions and save you time.

·       Reduce or eliminate need for fertilizers and pesticides, reduce watering and run-off, and save time and money. Native plants, properly selected, are adapted to our geology, hydrology and climate. They generally do not require outside intervention to maintain health and vigor when planted in an appropriate site.

·       Help combat global warming. Indigenous plants are more effective than traditional lawns as a carbon sink due to their extensive root systems and ability to retain and store water.

·       Create an aesthetically pleasing landscape, harmonious with the natural beauty of our area.

Select native plants ideal for your landscape needs.

·       Visit North Idaho Native Plant Arboretum, Lakeview Park, 611 South Ella Ave., Sandpoint, ID. The Arboretum is an ongoing educational project of the Kinnikinnick Chapter of the Idaho Native Plant Society (KCINPS). It is free and open to the public. Plants are identified and grouped in habitats, enabling you to see plants that might work well for your site.

·       Visit sites landscaped with native plants, such as the Mickinnick Trailhead in Sandpoint and the WaterLife Discovery Center in Sagle. These sites, planted and maintained by the KCINPS, illustrate creative design using native plants.

·       Obtain the "Bonner County Native Plant List" plant list prepared by KCINPS. (Available @ www.nativeplantsociety.org.)

·       Purchase from the native plant selections at local nurseries.

·       The University of Idaho includes some native plants for purchase in the catalog, "A Guide to Seedling Selection." (Available @ http://seedlings.uidaho.com or free @ (208) 885-3888.)

·       Do not dig plants from the wild unless they are in the path of development and you have permission from the landowner. Removing plants from the wild may be unlawful and the chance of successful transplantation is usually low. The greatest success comes from purchased plants.

·       Although many native plants have edible parts or medicinal uses, consider all plant parts to be toxic until you learn otherwise.

NATIVE PLANT LANDSCAPING LIST

TREES

Codes:  Soil - D = dry; M = moist; W = wet    Light - S = sun; PS = part sun or shade; Sh = Shade    *Keep away from sewer and septic lines

Common Name

Scientific Name

Height

Bloom

Moisture

Light

Arboretum

Notes

Alder, Red*

Alnus rubra

40-60 ft

 

M/W

S/PS

 

Fixes nitrogen in the soil; catkins

Alder, Sitka*

Alnus viridis

30 ft.

 

M/W

S

Interior Rain Forest /Riparian

Improves soil by adding organic matter and nitrogen; catkins

Aspen*, Quaking

Populus tremuloides

90 ft.

 

M/D

S

Aspen Grove

Golden fall color; spreads by root runners; gray-white smooth bark

Birch, Paper*

Betula papyrifera

50-70 ft.

 

M

S

Wetland

Yellow fall foliage; white peeling bark

Birch, Water*

Betula occidentalis

13-26 ft.

 

W

S/PS

Wetland

Streambank stabilization; pinkish, non-peeling bark

Cottonwood*, Black

Populus trichocarpa

150-180 ft.

 

M/W

S

 

Sticky, red seed cases; good for erosion control on banks; attracts birds

Fir, Douglas; Red

Pseudotsuga menziesii

150 ft.

 

D/M

S/PS

 

Shade tolerant; well drained soil; pyramidal shape

Fir, Grand; White

Abies grandis

100 ft.

 

M/D

S/PS

 

Fragile erect cones at top of tree; fragrant foliage

Fir, Subalpine

Abies lasiocarpa

60-105 ft.

 

M

S/Sh

Subalpine

Dark-green needles with whitish-lines; drought and heat intolerant; narrow, slow-growing; red-purple cones at top

Hemlock, Western

Tsuga heterophylla

120-150 ft.

 

M

Sh

Interior rain forest

Needs shade when young; thick, acidic, humus soil

Larch, Western; Tamarack

Larix occidentalis

100-200 ft.

 

D/M

S

Young Forest

Golden fall color; deciduous, erect, slender

Maple, Rocky Mountain

Acer glabrum

20 - 30 ft.

 

M/D

S/PS

Young Forest

Shrubby multi-trunk tree; fall and winter color; attractive all year

Pine, Ponderosa; Yellow, Bull

Pinus ponderosa

140 ft.

 

D/M

S

Young Forest

3 needles per sheaf; dry open sites; fire resistant

Pine, Western White

Pinus monticola

230 ft.

 

D/M

S

Young Forest

Idaho State Tree; five needles per sheaf; good specimen tree

Redcedar, Western

Thuja plicata

100-120 ft.

 

M

PS/Sh

Moist Forest

Evergreen-scale-like leaves; aromatic; red-brown bark; rich, moist soil

Spruce, Engelmann

Picea engelmannii

75-120 ft.

 

M

PS

Subalpine

Blue-green, stiff, evergreen needles; slow growing

 

 

 

SHRUBS

Common Name

Scientific Name

Height

Bloom

Moisture

Light

Arboretum

Notes

Alder, Wavy leaf*

Alnus viridis ssp. Sinuata

10 ft.

May-July

M

S/PS

 

Forms thicket; fast growing; fixes nitrogen

Birch, Bog, Scrub*

Betula nana

3-10 ft.

Feb-June

W

S/PS

 

Deep orange in the fall; acidic soil; spreading

Buffalo Berry

Shepherdia canadensis

3-13 ft.

May-July

D/M

S/PS

Dry Forest

Small yellow flowers; orange to red berries: fixes nitrogen

Cascara, Buckthorn

Frangula purshiana

up to 30 ft.

Jun-July

M/W

Sh

 

Small, yellow flower clusters; black fruit; silvery gray bark; deciduous

Ceanothus, Shiny Leafed

Ceanothus velutinus var.

2 ft.

 

D/M

S

 

Small white flowers in pyramidal clusters; good browes

Chokecherry, Common

Prunus virginiana

3-12 ft.

Apr-May

D

S

Meadow/ Medicinal

White flowers; grows in rocky soil; fast growing; showy fruit; attracts birds

Cranberry, Highbush

Viburnum edule 

1.5 to10 ft

 

M/W

PS/Sh

 

Clusters of white flowers., red berries, likes rich organic soil

Devil’s club

Oplopanax horridus

3-10 ft.

May-June

M

Sh

Interior Rain Forest

Creamy white flowers; beautiful red berries in fall; very spiny

Dogwood, Red Osier

Cornus sericea

3-6 ft.

May-July

M/W

S/PS

Interior Rain Forest

Greenish-white flower clusters;white berries; red twigs

Elderberry, Blue

Sambucus nigra var. cerulea

6-12 ft.

 

M

S

Riparian

Clusters of white flowers; grows along watercourses; powdery blue edible fruit; fast growing

Hawthorn, Black

Crataegus douglasii var.

6 to 25 ft.

May-June

D/W

S

 

White flower cluster; small black fruit; thorny; soil & stream stabilization

Hazelnut, Beaked

Corylus cornuta

3-12 ft.

 

M

S/Sh

 

Edible nuts; yellow, fall color; stream banks; well-drained soil

Huckleberry, Fool's; False Azalea

Menziesia ferruginea

up to 9 ft.

 

M

S/Sh

 

Tiny, pinkish-yellow flowers, blue-green foliage; crimson-orange fall foliage; acidic, humus soil

Huckleberry, Oval-leaf

Vaccinium ovalifolium

to 6 ft

 

M/W

S

Subalpine

White to pink flowers; edible blue-black berries; red fall foliage

Huckleberry, Thinleaf

Vaccinium membranaceum

to 4.5 ft

 

M/D

S

Subalpine

White to pink flowers; purple to reddish-black berries; red fall foliage

Juniper, Rocky Mountain

Juniperus scopulorum

3-30 ft.

 

D

S

 

Grayish-green; gray-blue berries; knotty, twisted trunk; rocky sites

Kinnikinnick

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

6-10 in.

 

D

S/PS

Paths

Urn-shaped flowers, red berries; evergreen shiny leaves

Maple, Rocky Mountain

Acer glabrum var.

20-30 ft.

 

M/D

S/PS

Young Forest

Shrubby multi-trunk tree; fall and winter color; attractive all year

Mountain Ash, Sitka

Sorbus sitchensis var.

3-15 ft.

June-July

M

S/PS

 

White flower clusters; grows on slopes; excellent fall color-leaves & berries

Mountain Ash, Western

Sorbus scopulina var. scopulina

3-13 ft.

May-July

D/M

S/PS

 

White flower clusters; grows on slopes; excellent fall color-leaves & berries

Mountain Lover, Myrtle Boxwood, False Boxwood

Pachistima myrsinites

1-2 ft.

May-June

M

PS

Berm

Tiny maroon flowers; good deer browse; evergreen;

Ninebark, Mallow

Physocarpus malvaceus

to 6 ft

May-June

D/M

S

Dry Rock

 White flowers; leaves hairy on both sides; peeling bark; rocky soil

Ocean Spray

Holodiscus discolor

3-10 ft.

June-Aug

D/M

S/PS

Dry Forest

Foamy, creamy-white flower clusters; arching stems; sandy to gravelly soil

Oregon Grape, Cascade

Mahonia nervosa

6-24 in.

Spring

D/M

PS/Sh

Path

Yellow flowers; shiny leaves; evergreen; dark berries

Oregon Grape, Creeping

Mahonia repens

6-12 in.

Apr/June

D/M

S

Path

Bright yellow flower clusters; blue berries; holly-like, evergreen leaves

Oregon Grape, Tall

Mahonia aquifolium

8-48 in.

May/June

D/M

S

Path

Yellow flower clusters; prickly, evergreen leaves; blue berries; drought resistant; rich soil;

Penstemon, Shrubby

Penstemon fruticosus

to 15 in.

June-Aug

D

S

Dry Rock

Flowers blue-lavender to purple, rocky soil

Rose, Baldhip

Rosa gymnocarpa var.

1-4 ft.

June-July

D/M

S

 

Small pink flowers; small scarlet hips

Rose, Nootka

Rosa nutkana var.

3-6 ft.

May-July

M

S

Dry Rock

Large pastel pink flowers; large, red hips

Rose, Pearhip

Rosa woodsii var.

3-6 ft.

May-July

D

S

Dry Rock /Medicinals

Pink flowers; large, dark red hips; spreads well.

Rose, Prickly

Rosa acicularis var.

3-6 ft.

June-Aug

M

S

 

Pink flowers; very spiny

Service Berry; Saskatoon

Amelanchier alnifolia var.

6-30 ft.

May-June

M/D

S

Young Forest

White flowers; dark blue berries; attracts birds

Snowberry

Symphoricarpos albus

4 ft.

May-Aug

D

S

Path

Pink flowers, white berries (poisonous) persist through winter;

Spiraea, Birch-Leaved

Spiraea betulifolia var.

10"-24"

June-July

M/D

S

Meadow/Moist Forest

White flowers in dense flat clusters; easy to grow

Spiraea, Douglas, Pink

Spiraea douglasii var.

4 ft.

June-July

M/W

S

Riparian/Rain Forest

Pink to deep rose, dense, elongate clusters; easy to grow

Sumac; Smooth

Rhus glabra

3-9 ft.

June-July

D

S

Dry Rock

White flower clusters; grows on slopes; excellent fall color-leaves & berries

Syringa, Mockorange

Philadelphus lewisii

3-9 ft.

May-July

M

S/PS

Young Forest

White, fragrant flowers; Idaho state flower; grows in open forests

Thimbleberry

Rubus parviflorus

1 1/2-7 ft.

 May-July

D/M

PS/Sh

Dry Rock

White flowers; edible fruit; spreads by rhizomes

Twinberry, Black; Bearberry

Lonicera involucrata

3-9 ft.

June-July

M/W

S/PS

 

Yellow flowers clusters; black berries in fall; boggy soil

Twinberry, Red; Utah Honeysuckle

Lonicera utahensis

3-6 ft.

May-July

M

S/PS

Moist Forest

Twin, yellow flowers. followed by twin red berries

Willow, Bebb's*

Salix bebbiana

1-15 ft.

 

W

S/PS

 

White catkins; grows in seeps

Willow, Drummond*

Salix drummondiana

6-12 ft.

 

M

S/PS

 

Long, oval-shaped leaves; tolerates poor soil; moist, water's edge  

Willow, Geyer's*

Salix geyeriana

4-15 ft.

 

M

S

 

Catkins; holds shorelines

Willow, Pacific*

Salix lasiandra

3-27 ft.

 

W

S

 

Pale yellow catkins; medium shrub or small tree; holds shorelines

Willow, Sandbar*

Salix exigua

to 12ft.

May-June

W

S

 

Grows on sandbars

Willow, Scouler*

Salix scouleriana

7-33 ft.

 

D/M

S

Young Forest

Erect, clumped growth

PERENNIALS

Common Name

Scientific Name

Height

Bloom

Moisture

Light

Arboretum

Notes

Alumroot, Round-Leafed

Heuchera cylindrica var.

6-20 in.

May-Aug.

D

S

Dry Rock/Meadow

Cream flowers on spike-like clusters

Arnica, Broadleaf 

Arnica latifolia var.

3-20 in.

All Summer

M

S/PS

Medicinal Garden

Bright yellow ray flowers

Arnica, Heart-Leaved

Arnica cordifolia

3-20 in.

May-Aug

M

S/PS

Medicinal Garden

Yellow, daisy-like flowers; leaves similar to trail plant

Aster, Showy

Eurybia conspicua

1-3 ft.

July-Sept

D/M

PS/Sh

Young Forest

Blue to violet ray flowers with yellow centers; loamy soil; grows under pines

Aster, Smooth Blue

Aster laevis

4-10 in.

July-Sept

D/M

S

 

Rose-purple to blue or violet, yellow center

Balsamroot, Arrowleaf 

Balsamorhiza sagittata

12-18 in.

May-June

D

S/PS

Dry Rock

Very showy, daisy type yellow flower; well drained soil

Beargrass

Xerophyllum tenax

stems to 4.5 ft

May-Aug

M

S

Subalpine

Creamy flower cluster on tall stem; grass-like leaves in clumps; lily family 

Bedstraw,  Fragrant

Galium triflorum

8-39 in.

May-June

M/W

PS/Sh

 

Tiny white flowers; reseeds; peat soil

Bergamot, Wild Beebalm

Monarda fistulosa

8-28 in.

June-Aug

M/D

S/PS

 

Pink/purple flowers; large clumps; rhizomes; a mint; sand to loam soil

Biscuitroot, Fern-leaved

Lomatium dissectum

to 5 ft.

Apr-June

D

S/PS

 

Yellow or purple flowers; rocky soil

Biscuitroot, Nine-leaf

Lomatium triternatum

8-32 in.

Spring

D

S

 

Yellow flowers; likes rocky soil

Biscuitroot, Salt & Pepper; Gorman's Desert-Parsley

Lomatium gormanii

4-10 in.

Early Spring

D/M

PS

 

Small white flowers (salt) w purple anthers (pepper); east exposure

Bitterroot

Lewisia rediviva

2-3 in.

Apr-July

D/M

S

 

Showy pink flower; well drained rocky soil

Blanketflower

Gaillardia aristata

8-27 in.

June-July

D

S

Young Forest

Flowers yellow to maroon; reseeds; well-drained soil; tolerates heat

Bluebell, Long-flowered or Mountain

Mertensia longiflora

5-8 in.

Apr/June

M

S/PS

 

Pink, clustered, bell shaped flowers turn blue

Bluebells

Campanula rotundifolia

6-20 in.

All Summer

D

S

Dry Rock

Purplish-blue, bell-shaped flowers on thin, wiry stems; well drained soil

Buckwheat, Cushion

Eriogonum ovalifolium

2-6 in.

May-Aug

D

S

 

Creamy white flower cluster; mat-forming, gray-green leaves

Buckwheat, Sulphur

Eriogonum umbellatum

2-12 in.

June-Aug

D

S

 

Creamy white flower cluster often tinged with red or purple; mat-forming, gray-green leaves

Buttercup, Little

Ranunculus uncinatus

6-24 in.

Early Summer

M/W

S/Sh

 

Small pale yellow flowers

Buttercup, Sagebrush

Ranunculus glaberrimus var.

2-8 in.

Early Spring

D/M

S/PS

 

Yellow flowers; coniferous forests; vanishes in mid-summer

Camas, Common

Camassia quamash

12 in.

Apr/July

M

S/PS

Riparian

Several blue-purple flowers per stem; like coarse grass; wet spring & dry summer soil

Cattail, Common

Typha latifolia

stems to 6 ft

 

W

S

Riparian

Dark brown blossoms become cottony when mature; organic soil; wet feet; rhizomes

Cinquefoil, Graceful

Potentilla gracilis var.

1-2 ft.

Late Spring

D

S/PS

 

Yellow flowers; 5-fingered leaves; looks like "marijuana leaf"

Cinquefoil, Sticky

Potentilla glandulosa var.

6-16 in.

June-Aug

D/M

S/PS

 

Pale yellow flowers; 5-fingered leaves.

Clarkia, Pink Fairies

Clarkia pulchella

2-8 in.

May-June

M/D

S

 

Pink flowers; well-drained soil; annual; reseeds

Collomia, Narrow-leaved

Collomia linearis

4-15 in.

May-Aug

D/M

S

 

Small tubular pink flowers in dense cluster

Columbine, Red

Aquilegia formosa

8-28 in.

May-Aug

D/M

S/PS

Dry Rock

Drooping red sepals, yellow petals

Columbine, Yellow

Aquilegia flavescens

8-30 in.

June-Aug

M

S/PS

 

Yellow petals, yellow sepals may be tinged with pink; mountain meadows

Cow Parsnip

Heracleum maximum

3-7 ft.

June

M/W

S/Sh

Wetland

White flower clusters 4-12 in. across; maple-like, showy leaves

Fireweed

Chamerion angustifolium ssp. angustifolium

1-7 ft.

June-Aug

M

S

Dry Rock

Large rose to purple flowers. First to grow after a fire; spreads by rhizomes

Flax, Blue

Linum lewisii

2 ft/

May-Sep

D/M

S/PS

Young Forest

Blue flowers replace daily; reseeds; very easy to grow

Fleabane, Daisy

Erigeron speciosus

4-24 in

May-Aug

D/M

S-PS

Subalpine

Blue ray flowers with yellow center. Blooms before the asters

Foamflower

Tiarella trifoliata var.

6-20 in.

June-July

W/M

Sh/PSh

 

Tiny, delicate white flowers on wiry stalks

Geranium, Cranesbill

Geranium richardsonii

16-35 in.

May-Sept

M

PS/Sh

 

White to pinkish flowers

Geranium, Sticky

Geranium viscosissimum

16-35 in.

May-Sept

D

S/Sh

 

Pinkish-purple flowers; grassy meadows

Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis var. salebrosa

12-70 in.

July-Oct

D/M

S/PS

Meadow

Dense clusters of showy yellow flowers

Grass Widow

Olsynium douglasii var. inflatum

6-10 in.

Early Spring

M

S/PS

 

Purple-blue flowers; iris-like leaves

Groundsel, Arrowleaf

Senecio triangularis

1-5 ft.

June-Sept

W

S/PS

 

Yellow composite flowers in flat topped heads

Hollyhock, Mountain

Iliamna rivularis

3-6 ft.

June-Aug

M

S

 

Showy spikes of pink to white flowers; large, maple-like leaves; well-drained soil

Hooker's Fairybells

Disporum hookeri

1-3 ft.

Late Spring

M/W

S/Sh

Moist Forest

2-3 creamy flowers hang from stem ends; red berries in fall

Hyacinth, Wild

Brodiaea douglasii

6-10 in.

Apr-June

D

S/PS

 

Blue flowers clumped at the end of a long stem

Jacob's ladder

Polemonium pulcherrimum

2-15 in.

May-Aug

D/M

S

 

Blue flowers; in the Phlox family; reseeds readily

Larkspur, Montana

Delphinium bicolor

3-15 in./ 6-24 in.

Apr-July

D/M

S

 

Stalk of blue/purple, showy flowers; grassy prairies, coniferous forests

Larkspur, Nuttall's

Delphinium nuttallianum

6-16 in.

 

D

S/PS

 

Showy blue to violet flowers; open forest

Lily, Columbia; Tiger lily

Lilium columbianum

2 feet/

Jul/Aug

3

3

Dry Rock

Orange flowers with red-purple dots; loose fertile soil; purchase as seed or corms

Lily, Leopard; Chocolate Lily

Fritillaria lanceolata

2 1/2 ft

April-June

M

S-PS

 

Purple-brown flowers mottled with green. Purchase corms

Lupine, Silky

Lupinus sericeus

8-24 in.

Spring

D

S

Meadow

Deep blue/purple flowers on erect stems

Lupine, Silvery

Lupinus argenteus

4-16 in.

Spring

D/M

S/PS

Meadow

Violet/blue flowers on erect stems; clumps

Meadowrue, Western

Thalictrum occidentale

1-3 ft.

 

M

S

 

Small white flowers in loose clusters at top of stems

Miner's Lettuce

Claytonia perfoliata (Montia perfoliata)

2-12 in.

Apr-July

M

PS/Sh

 

White to pink nodding flowers in a cluster above leaf disk

Miner's lettuce, Heart-leaved

Claytonia cordifolia

4-12 in.

May-Sept

W

PS

Moist Forest

Small white flowers with pink veins; grows along streams

Monkey Flower, Yellow

Mimulus guttatus

3 -36 in.

Summer

W

S/Sh

 

Yellow flowers; grows along streams

Nightshade, Dwarf Enchanter's

Circaea alpina

4-20 in.

 

M/W

Sh

 

Tiny flowers: showy leaves; cool, damp forest or wetland sites

Onion, Pink nodding

Allium cernuum

4 - 20 in.

June-July

D

S/PS

Medicinal

Pink to rose purple flowers; spreads by clumping

Pearly Everlasting

Anaphalis margaritacea

1-3 ft.

July-Oct

D/M

S

Dry Rock

White flowers in dense clustered heads; good dried flower

Phalicia, Threadleaf

Phacelia linearis

3-20 in.

May-July

D

S

 

Lavender-blue flowers; annual; reseeds

Prairie Smoke

Geum triflorum

4-12 in.

May-July

D/M

S/Sh

Dry Rock

Pink to red flowers, lacy leaves; plumed seed pods; gravelly soil

Prince's Pine

Chimaphila umbellata

1 ft.

June-Aug

M

S/PS

 

Pink flowers on top of long stem; evergreen, rosette leaves

Shooting star, Woodland

Dodecatheon pulchellum

6-16 in.

Apr-Aug

M

S/Sh

 

2-15 pink flowers per stem; likes moist humus-rich soil

Skunk Cabbage

Lysichiton americanus

1-3 ft.

Apr-July

W

PS/Sh

Wetland

Spike of tiny yellow flowers surrounded by a yellow hood; bogs

Solomon's-Seal, False

Maianthemum racemosum

1-3 ft.

Apr-July

M

PS/Sh

 

White flowers; red berries; spreads by rhizomes

Solomon's-Seal, Star-flowered 

Maianthemum stellatum

8-24 in.

May-June

M

S/PS

 

Small white flowers; rhizomes; moist, open forest

Stonecrop

Sedum stenopetalum

2-8 in.

May-Aug

D

S/PS

 

Star-shaped, bright-yellow flowers, grows on well drained rocky slopes.

Sweet Cicely, Western

Osmorhiza berteroi, Osmorhiza purpurea

16-48 in.

Apr-July

M

Sh

 

Yellow or white flowers in groups; black, needle-shaped seeds; licorice aroma; rich soil

Trailplant, Pathfinder

Adenocaulon bicolor

Up to 3 ft.

June-Sept

M

Sh

 

Tiny white flowers on multiple wispy stems; leaves light color underneath

Trillium

Trillium ovatum

1 ft.

Mar-June

M/W

Sh/PSh

Moist Forest

Three broad white petals on showy flower; three leaves

Twisted Stalk

Streptopus amplexifolius

1-3 ft.

May-June

M

PS/Sh

 

Greenish-white, bell-shaped flowers hang down from underside of leaves; red berries in fall

Valerian, Sitka

Valeriana sitchensis

1-3 ft.

June-Aug

M

S/PS

 

Pale pink fading to white flowers; feathery seed plumes; rhizomes

Violet, Early Blue

Viola adunca var.

4 in

Apr-Aug

D/M

S/PS

Dry Rock

Blue or purple flower

Violet, Round-leaf

Viola orbiculata

to 2 in

Apr-July

M

S/PS

Moist Forest

Yellow flower

Violet, Stream or Pioneer

Viola glabella

2 to 7.5 in

Apr-July

M/W

S/PS

Moist Forest

Yellow flower; streams and seeps

Waterlily, Yellow

Nuphar lutea ssp. polysepala

4-18 in.

Summer

W

S/Sh

 

Large, yellow flowers and large leaves float on the surface of ponds 2-10 ft. deep or slow streams

Woodland Star; Prairie Star

Lithophragma parviflorum var.

8-20 in.

Apr-June

M

S/PS

 

Small, white flower

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

6 - 24 in.

Aug - Oct

D/M

S

 

White flowers; leaves fern-like; re-seeds aggressively; fragrant

Yellow Bell

Fritillaria pudica

3-12 in.

 Apr-June

D

S/PS

 

Nodding yellow flowers. Purchase corms

FERNS

Common Name

Scientific Name

Height

Bloom

Moisture

Light

Arboretum

Notes

Brittle Bladder (Fragile) Fern

Crystopteris fragilis

4-12 in.

 

D

S

 

Rocky sites; foothills to alpine

Cliff Fern

Woodsia  scopulina

to 10 in

 

D

PS

 

Rocky soil; dry cliffs; talus slopes

Sword Fern, Common

Polystichum munitum

2-4 ft.

 

D/M

Sh

Interior Rain Forest

Rich soil; large clumps of leathery, deep-green fronds

Crested Shieldfern

Dryopteris cristata

12-25 in.

 

M/W

PS/Sh

Interior Rain Forest

Wet woods; evergreen

Lady Fern

Athyrium filix-femina

2-5 ft.

 

M

PS/Sh

Interior Rain Forest

Leaves in vase-like clusters; spreads well by rhizomes

Oak Fern

Gymnocarpium dryopteris

3-14 in.

 

M

Sh

 

Spreads well by rhizomes; well-drained, acidic soil

Oregon Woodsia; Western Cliff Fern

Woodsia oregana

to 7.5 in

 

D

PS

 

Rocky soil; dry cliffs; rocky slopes; clusters of leaves

Parsley Fern, Rockbreak

Cryptogramma acrostichoides

4-12 in.

 

M

S

 

Open, well-drained, rocky sites; parsley-like leaf clusters; evergreen

GRASSES, RUSHES, SEDGES, REEDS

Common Name

Scientific Name

Height

Bloom

Moisture

Light

Arboretum

Notes

Blue Wildrye

Elymus glaucus

2-3 ft.

June-Aug

M/D

S

Meadow

Blue-green blades in small clumps; deciduous forest; wildlife forage

Blue-Bunch Wheatgrass

Pseudoregneria spicata

2 - 3 ft.

 

D

S

 

Perennial bunch grass, leaves hairy above; drought tolerant

Bulrush, Hardstem

Scirpus acutus

2-10 ft.

June-Sept

W

S

 

Grayish-brown spiklets and stems; rhizomes; grows in water

Bulrush, Small-flowered

Scirpus microcarpus

to 4 ft.

Late summer

W

S

 

Wetland - roots need to be in water; triangular stems; forage for waterfowl

Bulrush, Softstem

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

2-4 ft.

Late summer

W

S

 

Wetland - roots need to be in water; triangular stems; forage for waterfowl

Cattail, Common

Typha latifolia

stems to 6 ft

June-Aug

W

S

Riparian

Organic soil by lakes and streams; rhizomes; blossoms become cottony when mature; invasive; water purifier

Idaho Fescue

Festuca idahoensis

1-3 ft.

 

D/M

S/PS

Meadow

Bluish-green, densely tufted bunchgrass; cool, well-drained soil

Sedge, Beaked

Carex rostrata

6 - 45 in.

 

W

S

 

Large clumps; rhizomes; wet feet

Sedge, Water

Carex aquatilis

3 ft.

 

W

S/PS

 

Forms a dense sod; rhizomes; wet feet

Spikerush, Creeping

Eleocharis palustris

4-50 in.

 

M/W

S

 

Round stems; rhizomes; alkaline soil; forms dense stands; tufted; wet feet

Tufted Hairgrass

Deschampsia cespitosa

1 1/2 - 2ft.

Spring- Summer

D/M

S/PS

Riparian

Showy plumes in late summer and fall; dense clumps; reseeds; deer resistant

Pinegrass

Calamagrostis rubescens

2-3 ft.

June-Aug

D

S/PS

 

Yellow-green to purple seed heads; dry coniferous forests; rhizomes

 

GROUND COVER

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Name

Scientific Name

Height

Bloom

Moisture

Light

Arboretum

Notes

Blackberry, Dewberry

Rubus ursinus

2-3 in.

June

D/M

S

 

White flowers; ground hugging trailing shrub; edible berries; prickles

Bunchberry

Cornus canadensis

2-8 in.

Spring

M

PS

Moist Forest

White flowers; bright red berries; evergreen; cool acidic soils; spreads by rhizomes

Ginger, Wild

Asarum caudatum

2-4 in.

Apr.-July

M

Sh

Moist Forest

Hidden maroon flowers; fragrant; moist, rich, organic soil

Kinnikinnick

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

6-10 in.

 

D

S/PS

Paths

Urn-shaped pink flowers, red berries; evergreen

Oregon Grape, Creeping

Mahonia repens

6-12 in.

Apr/June

D/M

S

Path

Yellow flower clusters; blue berries; red leaves in fall; evergreen

Pussytoes, Rosy

Antennaria microphylla

2-18 in

June-Aug

M

PS

Subalpine

Pink/white flowers in tight heads; gray-green leaves form mats; moist forest

Pussytoes, Woods

Antennaria racemosa

4-24 in.

May-Aug

D/M

PS/Sh

 

White flowers; gray-green leaves form a mat; rhizomes

Self-Heal, Heal-All

Prunella vulgaris

4-20 in.

May-Sept.

M

PS/Sh

 

Pink to purple flowers in a dense head on short stems; spreads

Strawberry, Wild

Fragaria virginiana and      F. vesca

2-6 in

May-August

D/M

Sh-PS

 

White flowers; tasty, edible fruit; spreads easily by runners

Twinflower

Linnaea borealis

4 inches/

June-Sept

M

S/PS

Moist Forest

Trumpet-like nodding pink flowers; fragrant; organic soil

 

 

 

VINES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Name

Scientific Name

Height

Bloom

Moisture

Light

Arboretum

Notes

Clematis, Western Virgin's Bower

Clematis columbiana

2-15 ft. long

May-July

M

Sh

Moist Forest

Blue to lavender flowers; feathery, plumed seed pods; plant seed in fall

Clematis, White Virgin's Bower

Clematis ligusticifolia

up to 60 ft. long

May-Aug

D/M

S/PS

Dry Rock

Cream-colored open flower clusters; silvery plumed seed pods; woody vine; well drained soil

Honeysuckle, Orange

Lonicera ciliosa

6-18 ft.

May-July

D/M

PS

Arbor

Orange-yellow flowers; climbs; orange-red berries

Peavine, Creamy

Lathyrus ochroleucus

12-40 in

May-July

M/D

S/PS

 

Cream colored flowers; rhizomes; rocky, open forests; fixes nitrogen; deciduous